Water Treatment Chemicals

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Boiler Water

Boiler Water Treatment

The importance of water treatment has on the life, efficiency and safety in the operation of industrial boilers; They will also deliver recommendations for the definition of water treatment programs and explains how to detect the most common problems.

1. Introduction

Water treatment of a steam boiler or hot water is essential to ensure a long life free of operational problems, major repairs and accidents.

The main objective of water treatment is to prevent corrosion and fouling problems, ensuring quality water supply and the water in the boiler.

The quality assurance feedwater and boiler water is achieved by fulfilling the requirements of the rules, which define the recommended parameters involved in water treatment limits.

2. Water Sources

Water sources correspond to all that water, which has not received any treatment and therefore contain impurities, acquired during the cycle which have been subjected, preventing their direct use in a boiler.

As the water flows over the surface of the land or percolates through the layers thereof, or dissolving impurities continuous trapping soil or minerals being experienced. This is how seemingly clear water.

Water, can have a high content of dissolved solids.

Impurities found most frequently in water sources include the following suspended solids, immiscible liquids with water (eg. Oil), colorants, bacteria and other microorganisms, semi-colloidal substances, dissolved gases, dissolved mineral salts ( cations, anions and silica).

Frequently Problems

Then the problems associated with water treatment, most frequently found in the boilers are described.


The main sources of corrosion in boilers are oxygen corrosion or "Pitting" Corrosion and Caustic.

Then described in consisting each of these types of corrosion, the factors that favor is that looks and how can be prevented

Corrosion Oxygen or "Pitting".

Oxygen corrosion is the reaction of oxygen dissolved in the water with the metallic components of the boiler (in contact with water), causing their dissolution or conversion into insoluble oxides.

The results of this type of corrosion are tubers black color, which are formed on the area of corrosion.

Since oxygen corrosion is caused by the action of oxygen dissolved in the water, this can also occur when the boiler is out of service and enter air (oxygen). Preventing oxygen corrosion is achieved by adequate feedwater degassing and maintaining an excess of oxygen scavengers in boiler water.

Caustic Corrosion

Caustic corrosion occurs by a local overconcentration in areas of high thermal loads (hearth, rear camera, etc.) alkaline salts such as caustic soda.

This type of corrosion is manifested in the form of deep cavities, similar to "pitting" of oxygen, oxide filled black color, present only in areas of high heat release (fire, backplate and rear camera) of a boiler.

Caustic corrosion can be prevented by maintaining alkalinity, and pH of free OH boiler water within the recommended limits in paragraph 4.

Condensate Return Lines Corrosion

The condensate return lines, logically not part of a boiler, however, has corrosion effects on boilers and can be prevented by treating water.

Corrosion lines condensate return has effects on boiler as oxides (hematite) produced are entrained into the boiler with the feedwater. Every boiler water whose side has a reddish color presents problems of corrosion in the condensate return lines.

Corrosion in the condensate return lines occurs by the action of carbonic acid in these forms.

Preventing corrosion in the condensate return lines, it can be achieved by neutralizing amines which neutralize the action of carbonic acid and amine protecting filmic lines.

These amines are volatile so to be dosed to the water supply lines, they are entrained by the steam produced in the boiler.


Fouling deposits correspond to carbonates and silicates of calcium and magnesium, formed due to excessive concentration of these components in the feedwater and / or blowdown of insufficient regimes.

In the figure it is possible to observe the upper run of the smoke tubes of a boiler inlaid with over 8 mm thickness.

The action of dispersants, chemical washes or expansion and contraction of a boiler can drop the scale, so must be eliminated in a very encrusted boiler to prevent its accumulation in the bottom of the pressure, as shown in the figure.

In the event that these inlays are not removed, you run the risk of embancar the boiler and obstruct the blowdown line, so that the problem may become even more serious.

The presence of scale in a boiler is particularly serious because of its low thermal conductivity acts as a thermal insulator, causing problems cooling of metal surfaces and can eventually cause damage sobecalentamiento.

In the figure the effect of the thickness of the layer of scale of a boiler shown in metal temperature. With increasing the thickness of the layer of scale, for the same heat flux, the metal temperature increases.

Boiler Chemicals

ACURO's offers such high quality specialized water treatment chemicals for boilers and cooling towers/air conditioning and steam boilers as well as a complete line of quality housekeeping and maintenance chemicals.

Boiler water treatment products incorporate oxygen scavengers, and alkalinity boosters for corrosion inhibition, and anti-scalants to prevent concrete-style scale build-up in boilers. Addition of boiler chemicals minimizes or even eliminates corrosion and scaling inside a boiler and significantly prolongs its lifetime. This is the simplest and most cost-effective way to protect your investment in a boiler system.

Our full line of boiler chemicals is designed to keep your system free from scale and corrosion, giving you more time to focus on what matters most.

Features of Boiler Chemicals :

  • Prepare feedwater before it goes to the boiler
  • Protect and keep the internal boiler surfaces clean
  • Maximize condensate return

Cooling Water Chemicals

Cooling Tower Water Treatment Principles

Make-Up Water – Water added to the system to replace water lost through evaporation, bleed of and windage.

Recirculation – The rate at which water circulates in the cooling tower (in m3/hour litres/sec).

Bleed Off – Water deliberately bled from the system to prevent the cooling system water from becoming too concentrated.

Maximum acceptable concentration factor – An expression of how concentrated the cooling water can become if problems with scale formation and corrosion are to be avoided.

Windage – Water lost from the cooling tower through mechanical rather that evaporative losses.

Temporary calcium hardness – The lower of either the calcium hardness or the Alkalinity (M).

Typical Evaporation Rules

One tonne of refrigeration requires an evaporation rate of approximately 11.4L/hr.

One KW of cooling requires an evaporation rate of approximately 1.5L/hr.

1.8% of the recirculation rate evaporates for each 10oC temperature difference across a cooling tower (1% for each 10oF)

Cooling System Concentration Factors

Your cooling tower will at some stage reach a natural limit as it cannot cycle up in concentration indefinitely like a boiler. However, it may be possible that this natural limit will result in a control limit being exceeded, be on the lookout for:

  • Systems with water chloride concentration exceeding 200pppm if stainless steel is present.
  • System water contains temporary hardness exceeding the limit specified by your treatment.
  • The system concentration factor exceeds the recommended maximum. As a general rule concentration factors should not exceed 5 but where the product is primarily inhibiting corrosion then this should be reduced to 3.5-4.0 to ensure sufficient inhibitor is added to maintain corrosion inhibiting film.

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Defoamers are the anti- foaming chemical additives that contain a blend of activated silicone oil and surfactants. This type of agents are primarily used in industrial process liquids to reduce the foam formation.

Formation of the foam can cause defects on surface coatings and prevent the efficient filling of containers. In addition to reduction in the foam generation, this type of additive also controls its complete generation in the industrial liquid.

Features of Defoamer:

  • Anti-foaming agents
  • Contain silicone oil and surfactants
  • Reduce the formation of foam
  • Control the generation of foam on surface of liquid
  • Used in industrial processing liquids
  • Low viscosity & surface active properties
  • Affinity to the air-liquid surface


Being multi-functional and versatile, SHIVA AQUA range of polyelectrolytes enhance the performance of the process thereby meeting the needs in varied industrial applications. The applications may include water purification, oil recovery, color removal (discoloration), COD /BOD reduction, paper & board production, mineral processing, metallurgy & metal smelting, super-plasticizers, hydrogels, implant coating, drug release system etc.

These charged polymers are bi-functional and can be used as flocculants and de-flocculants depending upon their molecular weights. Solid-liquid separation targets the flocculating nature of the polyelectrolyte whereas deflocculant serve as a dispersing agent.

SHIVA AQUA brings you a range of polyelectrolyte under the brand name SHIVA AQUA in various molecular weights and charge densities depending upon customer's requirements.

SHIVA AQUA Polyelectrolytes are primarily used in floating processes, primary decantation, thickening and organic sludge dewatering, either in industrial effluent treatments or in waste water plants.

Features of Polyelectrolytes:

  • Apt for any solid-liquid seperation.
  • Effective even at low dosages.
  • Excellent over a wide pH range.
  • Maximum flocculation.
  • Superior treatment effects when coupled with inorganic flocculants.

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RO Antiscalant

SHIVA AQUA offers a full range of Antiscalant to ensure the longevity and maximum production from your RO Plant. We manufacture and supply specialist, high quality RO Antiscalants products to industry and water treatment plants in global markets.

It is highly effective liquid antiscalant/antifoulant developed to control scale precipitates and reduce particulate fouling within membrane separation systems.

Use of this product provides longer run times and extended element life resulting in reduced operating and capital costs.

Use in industrial applications show excellent results in membrane separation processes including Reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF) and ultrafiltration (UF) applications.

Features of RO Antiscalant/Antifoulant:

  • Effective scale inhibition and low chemical dosage
  • High recovery rate and cost effective
  • Excellent results as a replacement for softener filters
  • Classified for use in producing potable water
  • Effective over a wide pH range

Tcca 90

TCCA stands for Trichloroisocyanuric Acid

Trichloroisocyanuric Acid & chemical is used as a disinfecting agent in swimming pools and fountain water bodies and helps in achieving crystal clear and clean water. Our TCCA 90 provides long-term effects in keeping your swimming pools free from bacteria and algae. With no side-effects on skin, hair and eye etc.

Key Features and Benefits :

Cost effective and stable source of chlorine easy to handle, ship, store and apply. Save expensive cost of dosing equipment. No white turbidity can be seen (as in case of bleaching powder),long duration of sterilizing effect.